Supercritical Fluids. Chemical and Engineering Principles and Applications
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We also discuss possible applications for supercritical fluid electrodeposition and suggest some key developments that are required to take the field to the next stage. The article was received on 23 Nov , accepted on 23 Dec and first published on 27 Jan This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.
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Supercritical Fluids - Fundamentals and Applications | E. Kiran | Springer
New Titles. Pick and Choose. Literature Updates. For Members. For Librarians. Wines that remain bottled for long periods of time occasionally acquire a cork taste, ruining the wine quality. This cork taste is imparted by the compound trichloroanisole TCA , which is present in some corks and slowly diffuses through the material until it reaches the wine. This is a million-dollar problem because it affects mainly expensive wines.
The only completely effective method for the removal of this compound without affecting the physical characteristics of the cork is the extraction with scCO2.
But there are many other applications for supercritical extraction in the food industry, such as deodorisation of olive oil, sterilisation and extraction of vitamins, oils, carotenoids, alkaloids, pigments, among other valuable products. Although extraction is the most established application for supercritical fluids, there are many other applications where the characteristics of supercritical fluids are an advantage. One example is the kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols with interest for the pharmaceutical industry.
Encapsulation is also an important area of application of supercritical fluids. This process is of special interest for the food and pharmaceutical industries. By behaving as a gas, scCO2 is a carrier that can diffuse easily into any porous solid matrix. Following the impregnation step, depressurisation brings about a decrease in the solubility of the molecule of interest that precipitates inside the matrix.
Moreover, in the depressurisation step, CO2 expands, creating a highly interconnected porous matrix. These characteristics can be advantageously exploited in drug delivery, food preservation, and active compound stabilisation. Depending on the pressure and temperature applied in the scCO2 permeation step, and also on the depressurisation rate, different products can be obtained, from highly interconnected porous matrices with small pore sizes, to large pore size matrices.
The swelling of the polymer creates a plasticising effect, bringing about a decrease in the glass transition temperature of the polymer. In practical terms, the polymer becomes more ductile. Supercritical fluid technology is an established technology that has been researched for many years, but only recently has it seen a boom in industrial applications. The technology has reached a maturity level that now makes it a viable alternative for many industrial processes. This article will appear in SciTech Europa Quarterly issue 30, which will be published in March, Monday, September 23, Contact Us Press Releases.
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Please enter your comment! In general terms, supercritical fluids have properties between those of a gas and a liquid. In Table 1, the critical properties are shown for some substances that are commonly used as supercritical fluids. Table 2 shows density, diffusivity and viscosity for typical liquids, gases and supercritical fluids. By changing the pressure and temperature of the fluid, the properties can be "tuned" to be more liquid-like or more gas-like.
One of the most important properties is the solubility of material in the fluid. Solubility in a supercritical fluid tends to increase with density of the fluid at constant temperature. Since density increases with pressure, solubility tends to increase with pressure. The relationship with temperature is a little more complicated.
At constant density, solubility will increase with temperature. However, close to the critical point, the density can drop sharply with a slight increase in temperature. Therefore, close to the critical temperature, solubility often drops with increasing temperature, then rises again.
US5932095A - Multi-chambered supercritical fluid extraction cartridge - Google Patents
Typically, supercritical fluids are completely miscible with each other, so that a binary mixture forms a single gaseous phase if the critical point of the mixture is exceeded. However, exceptions are known in systems where one component is much more volatile than the other, which in some cases form two immiscible gas phases at high pressure and temperatures above the component critical points.
The critical point of a binary mixture can be estimated as the arithmetic mean of the critical temperatures and pressures of the two components,. For greater accuracy, the critical point can be calculated using equations of state , such as the Peng Robinson, or group contribution methods. Other properties, such as density, can also be calculated using equations of state. Figures 1 and 2 show two-dimensional projections of a phase diagram. In the pressure-temperature phase diagram Fig.
Cu Wiring Fabrication by Supercritical Fluid Deposition for MEMS Devices
The appearance of a single phase can also be observed in the density-pressure phase diagram for carbon dioxide Fig. At well below the critical temperature, e. The system consists of 2 phases in equilibrium , a dense liquid and a low density gas.
At the critical point, Thus, above the critical temperature a gas cannot be liquefied by pressure. A small increase in pressure causes a large increase in the density of the supercritical phase. Many other physical properties also show large gradients with pressure near the critical point, e.
At higher temperatures, the fluid starts to behave like a gas, as can be seen in Figure 2. For carbon dioxide at K, the density increases almost linearly with pressure.
Many pressurized gases are actually supercritical fluids. For example, nitrogen has a critical point of Therefore, nitrogen or compressed air in a gas cylinder above this pressure is actually a supercritical fluid. These are more often known as permanent gases.
However, they cannot be liquified by pressure unless cooled below their critical temperature.