A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide)
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Finally, chapter nine includes details about all of the general techniques that are referenced throughout the six knowledge area chapters. A general technique is one that could be used by any number of tasks in various knowledge areas. Because of their wide applicability, they are all listed in their own chapter alphabetically.
There are 34 general techniques defined by IIBA. While I wish that they were integrated more tightly with the individual tasks that use them with more specific examples of how they could be used for the tasks , I understand why they are placed in their own chapter. Incidentally, there are also 15 specific techniques. Each one of these relates to only one task in the entire BABOK Guide, so they are described when they are encountered in each chapter.
For anyone interested in effective business analysis, this book would be an excellent addition to your library.
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A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide)
It includes a decision about which organizational process assets will be applied and any decisions made regarding tailoring of the process for a specific situation. Stakeholder analysis begins with identifying stakeholders who may be affected by the business need or a new solution. Stakeholders may be grouped into categories that reflect their involvement or interest in the initiative. The roles, responsibilities, and authority over the requirements for each stakeholder or stakeholder group must be clearly described.
Stakeholder analysis also involves understanding stakeholder influence on and attitude towards the initiative, and assessing positive and negative attitudes and behaviors which may affect the outcome of the initiative and acceptance of the solution. As the understanding of that need evolves through definition of business requirements, solution scope, stakeholder requirements, and solution requirements, that additional information will be used to assist in identifying additional stakeholders or understanding how existing stakeholders may have changed their position.
Enterprise Architecture: Describes the organizational units that exist, their interac- tions with other organizational units, customers, and suppliers, their responsibilities within the organization, and the roles and relationships within each organizational unit. Organizational Process Assets: These include organizational policies and procedures, forms that must be completed, suggested or prescribed methodologies, templates, and project authorization guidelines.
BABOK® Guide v3
They may be mandated or expressed in the form of guiding principles. Note that some individuals may be called on to play a variety of stakeholder roles on the same project, as well as on different roles on different projects.
Change-driven approaches may better accommo- date this risk, but cannot eliminate it, as late stakeholder identification can still result in alterations to the project roadmap and release content. Who participates in which business analysis activities can vary between projects, methodologies, and organizations. For example, some organizations may encourage members of the technical team to attend requirements workshops to provide costs, technical effort estimates and information on technical impacts while others may rule that no technical discussion is permitted during these meetings.
Different ap- proaches, plans, reports, amount of formality, and the amount of documentation can be customized based on the number of stakeholders each subject matter expert represents. Stakeholders with fewer constituents may be able to represent their stakeholder group without much difficulty. Stakeholders representing a large number of constituents or representing those from different functional areas or divisions may need to research information or engage in requirements elicitation themselves.
The plan- ning for stakeholders who represent those performing complex, interfacing, or overlapping business processes is different from those whose processes are more self-contained. Since not all stakeholders can or want to attend all requirements workshops, they can be more easily persuaded if the workshop pertains to their process and the associated software application. Influence: Understanding the nature of influence and the influence structures and channels within an organization can prove invaluable when seeking to build relation- ships and work towards building trust.
Understanding the influence each stakeholder may have, as well as their attitude, can help develop strategies for obtaining buy-in and collaboration. How much influence does the stakeholder have on the project? For instance, because sponsors obtain funding, including resources, and make vital decisions, they usually exert more than end-users. The business analyst should ana- lyze how much influence is needed to make the project succeed compared with the amount of influence the key stakeholders, such as the project sponsor, have.
For ex- ample, on a large, complex project requiring many internal and external resources, the project will need a sponsor who has effective relationships with funding groups to ensure that adequate resources are available for project work. Projects that are smaller may require sponsors with less influence. If there is a mismatch between the influence required and the amount of influence the stakeholder has or is per- ceived to have, develop risk plans and responses and other strategies that might be needed to obtain the required level of support.
Within most organizations there is an infor- mal way influence occurs. It is best to be aware of this informal influence structure. For example, if there are stakeholders who consider themselves project champions, they can be helpful in converting those who are less enthusiastic or even outwardly hostile to the project purpose and designated outcomes.
Brainstorming 9. Interviews 9. Organization Modeling 9. It will de- scribe the roles and functions in the organization and the ways in which stakeholders interact and so will help to identify stakeholders who are affected by a change. Process models can be a source for iden- tifying additional stakeholders, since related processes may be affected. In addition, categorizing stakeholders by the systems that support their business processes can be useful when changes need to be made to those processes and systems.
Requirements Workshops 9. Risk Analysis 9. Scenarios and Use Cases 9. Scope Modeling 9. Figure 2—5: Stakeholder Matrix High Work closely with stakeholder to Ensure stakeholder ensure that they are in agreement remains satisfied. Influence of Stakeholder Keep informed; stakeholder is Monitor to ensure stakeholders likely to be very concerned and interest or influence do not may feel anxious about lack of change. Delivery Project team and others directly involved with creating the solution. Implementation SME: May be able to identify and recommend stakeholders.
Project Manager: May be able to identify and recommend stakeholders.
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In the context of a project with a designated project manager, responsibility for stakeholder identifica- tion and management must be shared with the project manager. The business analyst and project manager should collaborate on performing this task. The project man- ager is accountable for ensuring that the project team meets commitments made to the stakeholders, managing the assignment of stakeholders to project tasks and their involvement in the execution of the project, and ensuring that changes that impact the project scope are appropriately managed and approved.
The business analyst will also assist the project manager in defining which project team members should be involved in developing, reviewing or approving business analysis deliverables. Tester: May be able to identify and recommend stakeholders. Regulator: May require that specific stakeholder representatives or groups be involved in the process. Sponsor: May be able to identify domain subject matter experts to help with require- ments definition. The activities that are executed and how they are executed will determine the quality and timeliness of the business analysis deliverables and ultimately of the solution.
The business analysis plan s identify and schedule the activities and resources required to produce a clear, concise set of requirements that support development of the solution. This planning activity will typically occur more than once on a given initiative or project, as plans frequently must be updated to address changing business conditions, issues encountered by the business analyst or other team members, lessons learned through the performance of business analysis activities, or other changing circum- stances. One way of accommodating change on a larger initiative is to plan on an incremental or rolling-wave basis.