Attention: From Theory to Practice (Series in Human-Technology Interaction)
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IT companies have supported their customers' claims, and met their expectations, as well as, considered profits, and then a solution is found: for many companies one of the ways to be different and to respond to this challenge has been the development of Frameworks, which allow using the accumulated knowledge and experience that exist within a company. Conversely, it permits to advance faster with their products.
According to IBM, "A Framework is a set of blocks of pre-fabricated software that programmers can use to apply, or change specific computing solutions. With the Frameworks the software developers do not need to start from beginning each time they start building an application. Frameworks are built from a collection of objects, so far as the design codes to be reused. If we search on the Internet, there is a considerable amount of websites and information about interactive applications for learning music. However, there are some missing aspects in them, for example: there is a lack of direct interactivity with the player; a deficiency of a consistent method; absence of consideration about the player-developed skills throughout the learning process, etc.
The main goal within this project was to develop a technological application for musicians that solve some of the encountered problems on other disposable systems. We wanted to understand the frequency of the instrument practice, the needs and motivations for its learning process and the importance given to learning from a teacher vs. Conversely, we aimed for a user-centred application's development. Thus, a questionnaire was created to evaluate the musician community towards new ways of learning music and some semi-structured interviews were designed to both music professionals and amateurs.
In addition, we did interviews whose focus was on learning practices, self-perception practices, relevant questions about technology use and relevant issues for the application development. In project 1, focus group was a discussion of six participants guided by the researcher within this specific project. The researcher used a script created to initiate and structure the discussion.
The approaches to gather information about situations, users, customers, collaborators and other stakeholders were institutional documents, attitudes from the community nursing houses and institutions of social solidarity and software applications in use. Then, we also did a questionnaire to verify if users agreed with the functionalities of our application. We intend to have suggestions about our layouts, functionalities, usability, and user's own comments. The interviews were in a person-to-person interaction form.
They were conducted in different social centres, private organisations, with different members. Firstly, we prepared the text for the interviews and we selected the staff members of each institution according a defined profile. Then, we interviewed the information systems technician of each institution.
Another phase of interviews with previous staff members was made to consolidate and correct the gathered information.
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Finally, we interviewed the administrative staff that would be in charge of the application use. Sixteen questions were designed to gather information from the interviewees, either to understand the procedures and interactions in and out the institutions or to know the type of complaints about work situations experienced. We were interested, namely, to identify the kind of information that was necessary for users' management; the compulsory information to be exchanged between the institution and the social security system; the access points to consult information; people that should be involved in the process and the output documents that should be created.
In parallel with the previously collected information, we also wanted to understand the difficulties that staff, in nursing homes, had when dealing with the whole amount of information that is spread all over the institution. In this project a combination of research methods was used as a literature review, clinical interviews, observations, discussions with doctors and counsellors, and patient interviews. We did also a questionnaire to complement the collected data. The data was gathered from around people.
Notes were written from observations, and interviews were video recorded. The conversations were transcribed preserving the context in which things were said and done. It is planned to interview more people before the phase of theory generation either to validate the data or to complement it and arrive to data saturation. Grounded Theory Method was chosen since it has been used, frequently, in healthcare study domains and conversely, because it gives guidelines and grounding than most approaches.
In Grounded Theory Method the data is collected, and a constant comparative method is analysed until saturation and theory emerged. The data was, firstly, analysed using Zachman Ontology because we consider this ontology well suitable to have a picture of an organisation. This Framework is frequently used for enterprise architecture. The Zachman Framework is composed of the intersection of two lines, the first consisting of the questions with primitive foundations of communication and the second derives from the transformation of abstract ideas in instances.
This Framework is typically described as a 6x6 matrix, with the questions occupying the columns and rows instances. According to John Zachman, Zachman Framework is "a theory of the existence of a structured set of essential components of an object. The main goal of this study was to analyse the use and interactions among all the stakeholders involved in health systems.
And, the Zachman framework conducted the data collection framework facilitating the definition of the specific necessities and the encountered problems of the institution. After the first picture of the institution, data started to be organised and ideas emerged. We needed to frame and to classify the whole tools and documents in order to sort complex problems in information system domain.
An anonymous online survey for IT developers was made throughout programming forums, social networks, e. The forum's participants were about developers that worked with multiple Frameworks.
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This study was conducted through the use of different research methods. Data was collected from staff interviews, observations, and surveys.
Interviews were conducted with staff from 11 Portuguese companies whose core business was IT consultancy operating in several target markets with over 5 million Euros. Interviews demanded a preparation process developed beforehand: background information about Companies' Frameworks, if they were collected through books and Internet articles which permitted to understand as well as to describe Frameworks' components and the way they work.
The researchers also took in consideration around six years of experience in one of this kind of companies. We met with the respondents in a private room and with they consent. The interviews were audio recorded for later transcription. Based on the script, several questions were asked and in parallel we took notes.
Following the literature, different sets of profiles were identified to establish the questions according to interviewees' experience. After face-to-face interviews, we did memo writing, which has high priority in the process of constructing a grounded theory. Memo writing is, according to Charmaz, the pivotal step between data collection and the draft writing process.
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When an idea is conceived, ''it prompts you to analyse your data and codes early in the research process'' Charmaz The processes of reading and note taking of frameworks led to creating a spreadsheet with some questions that should be asked to interviewees.
It was realised that their different profiles required different forms of questions. A developer, for example, sees the Framework in a different way that a supporter or an architect does. Defined the profiles and questions, meetings were scheduled with all the persons. It was decided to start with some of the researcher's colleagues to get more experience and to help in the questions' redefinition.
The survey we used in project 4 had three large groups of questions concerning demographical data usage in music.
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The goal was to obtain certain orientations for the proposed system functionality to perceive the acceptance rate of the proposed system. The survey was designed and implemented both in English and Portuguese languages. Some of the information to be collected was about people's gender and age, and about prior knowledge of music theory as well as prior musical practice of instruments.
We were also interested in understanding if the participants had technical conditions computer, internet access, smart phone to use the proposed system. Finally, we wanted to know the tendency for using learning applications and its frequency of use.
The survey was made up by 14 questions. The questionnaire was designed for students and or music practitioners. The question structure was preceded by a description. This description summarized the main subject and intentions. The information about the frequency of practice was very important to consider regarding the design of the system, especially for user experience design: if an application is used on a daily basis, users have a very fresh knowledge of the application, and from its current state.