Flight control systems: practical issues in design and implementation

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Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Authors Authors and affiliations R. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Barnes, J. Coad, P. Davis, A. Wrong email address. You're going to remove this assignment. Are you sure? Yes No. Additional information Publication languages: English.

Data set: Elsevier. Publisher Elsevier Science. Fields of science No field of science has been suggested yet. You have to log in to notify your friend by e-mail Login or register account. Download to disc. The rod of the piston is connected exit. The piston and rod together create a to the structure, whereas the power cylinder system which fluctuates back and forth inside is connected to the control surface.

As the the bore. Seals are placed to prevent any cylinder moves, responding to an unbalanced leakages.

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An AFCS servo automatic flight control valve [10][12]. It s placed in the stabilator dual servo valve. Henceforth, when the autopilot detects and signals for a pitch change, the control stick will go with the flow of movement [13]. The stabilator, ailerons and spoilers all use dual, Figure F4 Phantom flight control stabilator system [13] irreversible power control cylinders, in order to position the control surfaces.

A single, 4.

[Control Engineering 1] Introduction to Control System

The primary control link for moving a control surface, the third systems for the McDonnell Phantom generation aircraft would all have actuating generation are the stabilators, rudder and devices to move components, thus boosting their efficiency, and having a better operating ailerons [13] [36]. Longitudinal control is achieved with the benefit of a stabilator. The components of the The hydraulic irreversible system was also an system are: control stick, push-pull rods, advantage for many second and third cables, bellcranks, control valves and power generation aircraft due to the hinge moments being created at high angles of attack irreversibility was a key benefit to stop these moments.

However, due to the high forces acting on the cylinder system, this can cause component or structural damage. A novel system was required to overcome this, leading to fly-by- Figure 11 : the principle of an irreversible hydraulic actuating wire systems. The first, second and third cylinder [12] generation were all examples of mechanical and hydro-mechanical systems. The fourth cylinders.


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As the control stick is longitudinally however introduced electrical systems. Another set of push-pull rods are incorporated in the system, where 5. The technology. The architecture Larger commercial and fighter aircraft, such as of fly-by-wire was developed in [37] as a the Boeing , Mig 19, F-4 all had mechanical reliable and sophisticated system which and hydro-mechanical systems.

The military improves the handling qualities of the aircraft. They also did not have the the fourth generation era of military advantage of a computerised system. Primary flight The electro-hydraulic control system has both control surfaces of all fourth generation electrical and hydraulic components and is aircraft are operated by electro-hydraulic popularly known as fly-by-wire method.

The methods. Unlike the electrical systems, these primary flight control surfaces aileron, do not have the friction and corrosion elevator and rudder employ hydraulic problems of earlier generation hydraulic actuators and control valves that are systems [37]. These cables run the entire length of an airframe from cockpit to every control surface. It allows the pilot command input signal to be transmitted by wires without any distortion and error, thus i p o i g the s ste s elia ilit and functionality.

The actuation of control surfaces depends upon the operation of the valve and hydraulic actuator. Figure Fly-by-wire architecture overview [38] 5. In previous generations flight control was fully dependent on mechanical and hydro-mechanical systems, which suffered from mechanical deficiencies and Figure design of fly-by-wire and its component [39] stability complications. The basic operation of the fly-by- fitted with hydro-mechanical controls and the wire system starts with the pilot inputting a mirage was equipped with the fly-by- command, which is changed into an analogue wire system.

The key advantages of the electrical signal that passes through many mirage , over the earlier Mirage iii are: electrical cables and channels to ensure that improved stability, more cost-effective, a the signal reaches the flight control reduction in weight and better agility. This computer. Triplex is mostly used because of its high integrity and reliability. It also uses a self-checking method with the built-in test equipment BITE that is also used in pre- flight safety checks [40]. The Cyclic Figure Concorde taking-off [56] Redundancy Check CRC algorithm is used within the computer to detect errors during elevator, a second for the aileron and spoiler transmission [41].

The signal is then amplified elevator. Both computers have two channels, to operate the actuation system, which in command and monitoring.

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Each channel turn moves the control surface. The reduction of weight and greater ease of maintenance is achieved by replacing After actuating the control surfaces, the mechanical components with electrical analogue signal is converted into a digital interfaces. Previous generations had used signal by an ADC analogue to digital mechanical linkages to control and actuate converter , and finally returned back to the the control surfaces whereas this fourth computer reporting the movement of control generation uses the fly-by-wire system, surface.

The feedback signal is detected by substantially enhancing aircraft performance. The error is calculated and identified by quality, making it a more sophisticated system the difference between the current control of control than the mechanical and hydro- surface position and the desired input. There mechanical control systems that it replaced. Avoiding this requires 5. Today the cost of the system. To the current day, millions of flying hours have been achieved millions of flying hours have been using fly-by-wire technology that is now so accumulated using fly-by-wire systems.

They reliable there is merely one failure per billion are so reliable that there is now only one flying hours. In a conventional aircraft such as failure per billion flying hours [40]. It is converted back to improvement on earlier flight control an electrical signal, decoded and processed. Independently of this, there has Then it is altered back to an optical signal to been an increase in the use of composites in travel through optic fibres to the actuator aircraft design, largely driven by the potential where it is once again converted to an for weight reduction and increased strength electrical signal and applied to the control over their metal counterparts.

The Boeing surface [44]. However this advance comes with a i e s ste s. The pilot s i te fa e a d s ste major drawback as composites offer no operation process are also the same.

Flight Control Systems: Practical Issues in Design and Implementation

The essential installation 6. This system must instead of electrical cables as these are include sensors, a fibre optic link, an inherently resistant to both HIRF and EMI. The optic fibres are lighter by up to a 6. As discussed, the that they had conducted a successful test weight is always one of the most important using fly-by-light technology to operate the factors to take into account when designing flight control of their G test aircraft.

The an aircraft. The optic fibres have a large aircraft flew for almost 75 minutes while optic bandwidth, meaning that they can transmit fibres were used to successfully transmit pilot more data per second [16] a crucial factor input to spoilers on the wings.

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The system since as the speed of the aircraft increases, carries instructions in the optic fibres and the speed of the o t ol su fa es ea tio s performs an optic-electrical conversion at must also increase. This would appear to suggest that fly-by-light is the ideal flight control system for the future. The signal concentrators can electrical counterparts [43].

The components unite thousands of electrical signals onto one are fragile. The connectors require a certain single optical bus. The cables are brittle, thereby restricting the angle at which The fibre optics used on the G also the wire can be bent. These difficulties transmitted a redundant signal so that if the seriously increase the time, effort and costs first failed the redundant signal could take required to plan and install such a cable over, giving this fly-by-light system better network within an aircraft.

This may explain integrity and safety. The experiment was a why, despite the clear advantages, there are total success. Pres Henne, Senior Vice currently no aircraft in production using fly- President of Programs, Engineering and Test by-light flight control. Currently, it is still only at Gulfstream had this to sa a out it: Whe in its test phase.


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Aileron trim flight tests on a you consider the benefits fly-by-light McDonnell-Douglas 87 have proved the technology delivers to its users in terms of capability of fibre optics. Also, NASA has weight and safety, the system Gulfstream tested it on the F fighter and plans to do tested as ette tha e pe ted. We e other tests on the Boeing using the same pleased ith the s ste s pe fo a e a d system [43]. Gulfstream have tested on their will continue to research its use in future G test aircraft [8].

The technology is being applications [17]. The Airbus A- 6. Other advantages are its much larger 7. However, there are several more economic stress and social fears, the brilliant advantages to the fly-by-light system. It is also a set to find effective solutions to the excessive highly durable system despite being of demands. Future goals such as, lower life- minimal mass.